Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Saturday, March 31, 2012

RADIOMARELLI RV687 YEAR 1974.





The RADIOMARELLI RV687 is a 17 inches B/w portable television with 4 programs keyboard selected and potentiometers tuning search.
The invention relates to a tuning unit with bandswitch for high frequency receivers, especially radio and television receivers, having a potentiometer system for the control of capacity diodes, the said potentiometer system consisting of a plurality of parallel resistance paths along which wiper contacts can be driven by means of screw spindles disposed adjacent one another in a common insulating material housing in which a bandswitch formed of metal rods is associated with each tuning spindle.

In these tuning units, the working voltages of the capacity diodes in the tuning circuits are recorded once a precise tuning to the desired frequency has been performed. A potentiometer tuning system has great advantages over the formerly used channel selectors operating with mechanically adjustable capacitors (tuning condensers) or mechanically adjustable inductances (variometers), mainly because it is not required to have such great precision in its tuning mechanism.

Tuning units with bandswitches formed of variable resistances and combined with interlocking pushbuttons controlling the supply of recorded working voltages to capacity diodes are known. Channel selection is accomplished by depressing the knobs, and the tuning or fine tuning are performed by turning the knobs. The resistances serving as voltage dividers in these tuning units are combined into a component unit such that they are in the form of a ladderlike pattern on a common insulating plate forming the cover of the housing in which the tuning spindles and wiper contacts corresponding to the variable resistances are housed. The number of resistances corresponds to the number of channels or frequencies which are to be recorded. The wiper contact picks up a voltage which, when applied to the capacity diodes determines their capacitance and hence the frequency of the corresponding oscillating circuit. The adjustment of the wipers is performed by turning the tuning spindle coupled to the tuning knob. By the depression of a button the electrical connection between a contact rod and a tuning spindle is brought about and thus the selected voltage is applied to the capacity diodes. Since the push buttons release one another, it is possible simply by depressing another button to tune to a different receiving frequency or a different channel, as the case may be.

In the end of the 60's  increasingly attention was focused on the varicap diode tuner as the latest, sophisticated means of television receiver frontend tuning in both colour and black and white sets.
 The main purpose of this article is to investigate the servicing problems associated with this comparatively new method of tuning.

First however let's briefly recap on the principles involved in this tuning system:

 The tuners use variable capacitance (or "varicap") diodes as the variable tuning elements: the effective capacitance of the diodes is controlled by the reverse bias applied across them, tuning being achieved by varying this voltage. As the reverse bias across a varicap diode is increased so its junction depletion region widens thus reducing its capacitance.
A VHF/ UHF television tuner is constructed in accordance with the present invention includes a preselector tuned circuit having a solid state voltage controlled capacitor as its tunable element, a radio frequency amplifier coupled to the preselector circuit and alsoother circuit to perfect the signal receiving capability and the application the like.

Considering the Mechanical Tuner Problems:

To get the servicing problems in perspective let us next consider the tuning arrangements previously used.
 The earliest of these, employed on v.h.f., was the switched tuner which was either of the turret or incremental type.
 The turret tuner substituted a coil bearing "biscuit" mounted on the rotating drum or turret when channels were changed. Twelve positions were normally provided, with a fine tuning knob to adjust the local oscillator frequency. As its name suggests the incremental tuner simply added more inductance to the tuned circuits at every downward channel movement: thus the highest inductance was present on channel one and the least on channel 12 (which normally covered 13 as well with manipulation of the fine tuner).
The movement towards u.h.f. TV working, initially with dual standard sets and later with single standard ones, brought about the need for u.h.f. tuners. In the earliest u.h.f. receivers valve tuners which were not particularly efficient were used.

The drive mechanism was usually a dual  speed rotary system calibrated from channels 21 to 68. Experience in the field indicated that 625 line television was in many cases considered by the viewer to be inferior to 405 -line reception, on account of the poor signal to noise ratio achieved by the valve tuners. Many viewers were not prepared to use external u.h.f. aerials of course, having achieved satisfactory reception on v.h.f. with an indoor aerial: this aggravated the situation even more.
Another aspect which caused difficulty was the care needed to tune in a u.h.f. channel using a rotary tuner covering the whole of Bands IV and V. Many viewers simply could not tune in BBC 2  or ZDF or ORF or any channel correctly with such a tuning mechanism, finding that they had passed right over the channel they wanted before realising what they had done.
The advent of transistor tuners rapidly improved the quality of u.h.f. reception but use of a rotary mechanism was continued by many manufacturers. Thus while potential reception was improved the same tuning difficulties remained and viewers continued to gravitate towards 405 line viewing using the "old faithful" switched tuner. The operational breakthrough came with the introduction of the push-button u.h.f. channel change. 

The mechanism is basically simple. Adjustable push buttons press down on a lever bar which in turn rotates the tuner's variable capacitors to the appropriate position. Each button is capable of tuning over the entire u.h.f. bands and this leads to customer confusion at times when after some adjustments which were too heavy handed they find themselves receiving ITV on a BBC button or a ORF and ZDF broadcasting or any channel possible !

Mechanical Faults:

 Mechanical tuning obviously has its snags. There are for example contact springs which earth the tuning capacitor and go intermittent. This gives rise to the most random tuning defects, capable of driving the. most patient viewer to a state of total exasperation. It is also possible for the rotation mechanism to hang up and jam intermittently, or just become sticky, so that the reset accuracy of the mechanism is impaired and the receiver has to be retuned every time the channel is changed.
The vanes in the tuning capacitor can also short out at different settings, thereby eliminating some channels. The  Varicap Tuner It will be seen then that mechanical defects can cause very irritating fault symptoms. If one thinks along the lines that anything mechanical is nasty, then the elimination of mechanical parts can only be to the good.

The logic of this is splendid provided the electronic replacement for the mechanical system is more reliable! Otherwise we are leaping out of the frying pan into the fire! In the light of experience gained with mechanical tuning devices it seems great that with the varicap tuner we have at last dispensed with the dreaded rotary tuning capacitor, replacing it instead with a variable voltage to the tuner. 
Let us think about this however since things are never quite as simple as they first appear. The tuning voltage has to be variable in order to tune the receiver. Obviously then a means of varying the voltage has to be provided to act as the tuning control.
As it is a voltage that has to be varied the tuning control takes the form of a potentiometer., Now we have returned to a mechanical system again, though in a less complex form.
A potentiometer is required for each channel, selected by pressing the appropriate channel button.

We have lost a tuning capacitor and its rotating mechanism and gained a set of pots and selector switches therefore. Provided the pots and switches are mechanically more reliable than the tuning capacitor we should be better off-or should we? 

Need for Voltage Stabilisation.
 The voltage selected by the pots cannot be allowed to drift otherwise the receiver will go off -tune. The voltage supply to the potentiometers has to be stabilised therefore and a stabilising zener diode or integrated circuit (TAA550) .is needed for this purpose.

Any failure in this part of the circuit will give rise to tuning drift or worse, a total loss of reception. A short-circuit TAA550 for example will completely remove the tuning voltage while if it is open circuit the tuning can vary with picture brightness. Likewise any intermittency in the potentiometers or associated switching and/or resistors can also cause problems.

Relative Reliability of Tuners:

 It  will be seen then that in order to lose our troublesome mechanical arrangement we have had to introduce considerably more electronics which we trust are going to be more reliable. In addition we have not so far considered the relative reliability of the varicap tuner itself compared with the mechanical type. Since two r.f. transistors are generally used to compensate for the reduced Q of the varicap tuned circuits we immediately have twice the likelihood of an r.f. stage breaking down! 
And being semiconductors the varicap diodes themselves are more likely to fail than the sections of a ganged tuning capacitor. It is reasonable then to conclude that if mechanical faults are the most prevalent the use of varicap tuners will make life easier. Mechanical faults are generally not too difficult to sort out however and the field engineer can often cope with them in the home. 
Can the same be said of the varicap tuner? It seems that this type of tuner does not need so much attention as its mechanical counterpart but is likely to throw up some much more difficult faults when it does, resulting in bench repairs being needed. So far my own experience has indicated that varicap tuning faults nearly always need servicing on the bench.
Generally speaking it seems true to say that varicap tuners themselves are adequately reliable: the snags result from the tuning system and stabilised power supply.

Tuning Drift with Varicap Tuners:

 If a varicap tuned receiver is constantly drifting off tune the +30V supply should be the number one suspect. It is best to connect an Avometer permanently to the supply so that it can be precisely monitored-if necessary write down the exact voltage measured.
 If the receiver drifts, check the voltage. If it has changed, even slightly, this may well be enough to be the cause of the fault. To pinpoint and confirm the diagnosis aerosol freezer should be applied to the stabiliser i.c. or zener. If the voltage returns to normal or changes wildly for the worse the stabiliser is almost certainly the cause of the trouble and should be replaced.
A prolonged soak test should then be carried out. Another point concerning varicap tuners arises with their use in colour receivers.


 There were  makers of the most expensive colour receiver on the market still didn't use a varicap tuner but instead use a mechanical one. The makers' claim is that the signal to-noise ratio of the varicap tuner is inadequate for their colour standards. Undoubtedly the results obtained on the receiver seem to confirm this. Interestingly, the same manufacturers use varicap tuners in their black -and -white receivers, and the tuning button system is often full of troublesome intermittent contacts. The varicap tuner has its advantages and disadvantages then. Probably the simplest comment would be to say that when it is good it is very very good but when it is bad it is horrid!
Springs component in old tv's tuner :
Most old televisions tuning mechanisms were incorporating coil springs in one form or another for various functions. They can be of the compression type which are wound with spaces between adjacent turns and are intended to be squeezed under pressure : when released they expand to their original form. The mounting springs under record-player turntable units are examples of this type. Alternatively the spring can be of the expanding variety. The coils are wound closely together with adjacent turns touching. The applied tension tends to pull them apart and they exert a contracting force to counteract this and pull the linked components together. In the majority of applications this type is used. Springs often become damaged by being over stretched, or the end loop breaks. More frequently the spring simply becomes detached and disappears. Thus the engineer is faced with the task of finding and fitting a replacement. While it is possible to apply to the makers of the equipment for the right spring this involves delay and of course there is always the problem of identifying the right one out of the many used in the particular mechanism. For this reason many engineers find it more convenient to make their own replacements.

Making a Coil Spring: The operation was quite simple, the equipment needed being a wheelbrace, vice, selection of long screwdrivers with varying diameter shanks and a supply of piano wire of various gauges. The wheelbrace is mounted horizontally in the vice with the wheel uppermost and a screwdriver chosen and inserted into the chuck with the blade foremost. This serves as a mandrel on which the spring can be wound. Because a spring expands slightly in diameter after it is wound the diameter of the screwdriver shank should be a little less than the required inside diameter of the spring. One end of the piano wire should be inserted in the chuck and secured to prevent it coming free. The wheel is then slowly turned and the wire taken up around the screwdriver shank. Keep the wire taut and pull it backward (see Fig. 1) toward the chuck at an angle which keeps the adjacent turns together but does not make a turn ride over the top of its predecessor. When the spring has reached the required length cut the wire and remove the springand screwdriver from the chuck.
As an aid in determining the size of the spring required-especially if the original is lost and there is no pattern to make a comparison with-here are a few observations on the characteristics of coil springs as determined by their dimensions.
Properties of Coil Springs: There are two main properties of a spring, the length to which it can be expanded in comparison to its closed length and its tension or strength in the expanded state. If a coil spring is expanded too far its coils will not return to their original position and the spring is said to be stretched. The amount that a spring can be expanded without becoming stretched is governed by the number of turns and the diameter. The greater the number of turns the less each one has to deviate from its resting position for the complete spring to reach a particular length. Also the greater the diameter the smaller the strain and therefore the more the spring can be expanded. The strength of a spring is related to the gauge of wire and the diameter. A heavy gauge will obviously give greater tension than a lighter one but also a spring with a large diameter will exert less force than a smaller one because as we have seen there is less strain when it is expanded. More force is exerted when the spring is well expanded than when it is nearly closed. If therefore we need a spring that is strong and will stretch a long way we need a large number of turns but not so many that the spring is too long in its closed position. It needs to be of fairly large diameter but as this will make it weaker we must compensate by using a heavy gauge of wire. A weak spring with a long stretch is easily made with thinner wire and a large diameter while a strong spring with a short stretch need have few turns and small diameter. So the various factors are interdependent and although spring design can be quite an exact art-by varying the various parameters-something suitable for the job can usually be made up by judicously estimating the size from the foregoing principles. If a spring has become stretched nothing can be done to restore it by squeezing it up as it has now become a compression spring and the expanded state is its normal one. Rather than winding a completely new spring however the old one can be unwound on a wheelbrace-by reversing the winding process and then rewound tightly. Proper unwinding is essential, not just pulling the spring out straight, because this will produce kinks.
Leaf Springs: From coil springs we turn to leaf springs. These were used as contacts in tuner units and are also were used in the press  button channel selector of the Philips colour TV range and other fabricants. To make a positive contact the leaf spring must be tensioned just right. In the case of the turret tuner the leaf must be so sprung that the contacting stud moves it about a tenth of an inch away from the resting position. If as sometimes happens contact is made without much movement of the leaf there will be little if any pressure and the contact will very likely be intermittent. If on the other hand the leaf is adjusted too far forward it may be caught by the edge of the coil biscuit and crumpled when the turret is rotated.
 Moreover, using this arrangement, the only indication--during adjustment--of which channel is selected is by station identification.
It has a Transistorized horizontal deflection circuits  made up of a horizontal switching or output transistor, a diode, one or more capacitors and a deflection winding. The output transistor, operating as a switch, is driven by a horizontal rate square wave signal and conducts during a portion of the horizontal trace interval. A diode, connected in parallel with the transistor, conducts during the remainder of the trace interval. A retrace capacitor and the deflection yoke winding are coupled in parallel across the transistor-diode combination. Energy is transferred into and out of the deflection winding via the diode and output transistor during the trace interval and via the retrace capacitor during the retrace interval.
In some television receivers, the collector of the horizontal output transistor is coupled to the B+ power supply through the primary windings of the high voltage transformer.
The set here in collection is fabricated by ZANUSSI.



RADIOMARELLI (society of the group Magneti Marelli) has been
one of the most famous radio receivers industries: it was founded in 1891 as
Industria Elettromeccanica Italiana by ERCOLE MARELLI.
Radiomarelli was founded in 1929 from the Magneti Marelli company.

Between 1920 and 1930 there was a linkage from this Italian company and the American Bosch about the manufacturing of magnets and electrical parts for motor vehicles.

On 11.19.1930, the Magneti Marelli decided to start the radio production and the new company was named Radiomarelli.

The Radiomarelli project manager was Mr. B.A.Quintavalle and the first radio models, made in Italy, were inspired to the American Bosch models.

At that time, Radiomarelli and American Bosch were business partners.

The diagrams and the chassis of the first Radiomarelli models were similar to the ones of American Bosch models, the wood cabinets were a bit different.

The “Musagete” model has the same chassis of the A. Bosch mod. 48 and the wood cabinet was made in Italy but is very similar to the American model.

The “Coribante” model is the Italian version of the A. Bosch mod. 5.

The “Scrigno” model was the Italian version of the Bosch 200A & 200B models.

The chassis of the “Alauda” is very similar to the one of Bosch 402.
From 1935 onwards Radiomarelli decided to create a more independent production.
And obviously DIED like all Italian Industry..........

But before, it was aquired from the conglomerate of ELCIT AND SEIMART which was a joint developed by GEPI a government special system invented to "save" industry with "some" difficulties (!!!)

RADIOMARELLI RV687 CHASSIS BS201-4 (ZANUSSI) INTERNAL VIEW.








The Zanussi CHASSIS BS201.4 is based On a Heavy monocarrier PCB. All parts are fitted on it even the power supply part.

- SN7600 (Texas Instruments)

- Tba550Q (PHILIPS)

BU190S


All semiconductors circuits were made by:ates

SGS is Società Generale Semiconduttori - Aquila Tubi E Semiconduttori (SGS-ATES, "Semiconductor General Society - Tubes and Semiconductors Aquila"), later SGS Microelettronica, a former Italian company now merged into STMicroelectronics
SGS Microelettronica and Thomson Semiconducteurs were both long-established semiconductor companies. SGS Microelettronica originated in 1972 from a previous merger of two companies:
  • ATES (Aquila Tubi e Semiconduttori), a vacuum tube and semiconductor maker headquartered in the Abruzzese city of l'Aquila, who in 1961 changed its name into Azienda Tecnica ed Elettronica del Sud and relocated its manufacturing plant in the outskirts of the Sicilian city of Catania
  • Società Generale Semiconduttori (founded in 1957 by Adriano Olivetti).


The line deflection is using the

BU109A

A SILICON PNP TRANSISTOR, see below the datasheet:

BU109A

NPN TRANSISTOR, DIFFUSED MESA
TRANSISTOR NPN SILIC/UM, MESA DIFFUSE

The BU 109 is a fast switching high voltage
transistor. It is primarly intended for use in V 330 V
horizontal deflection output stage of black
and white TV receivers fitted with 110° picture tube.

ABSOLUTE RATINGS (LIMITING VALUES) t = 25°C (Unless otherwise stated)

Collector-base voltage VCB 330 V
Collector-emitter voltage 120V

Collector-emitter voltage VBE = -5 V VCEX 330V
Emitter-base volt 10 V
Collector current 10 A
Peak collector current 15A
Base current 3 A
Power dissipation = 25 C 85 W
Storage temperature min. t -65 °C
Temperature de stockage maX +200°c


Power supply is realized with mains transformer and Linear transistorized power supply stabilizer, A DC power supply apparatus includes a rectifier circuit which rectifies an input commercial AC voltage. The rectifier output voltage is smoothed in a smoothing capacitor. Voltage stabilization is provided in the stabilizing circuits by the use of Zener diode circuits to provide biasing to control the collector-emitter paths of respective transistors.A linear regulator circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention has an input node receiving an unregulated voltage and an output node providing a regulated voltage. The linear regulator circuit includes a voltage regulator, a bias circuit, and a current control device.

In one embodiment, the current control device is implemented as an NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) having a collector electrode forming the input node of the linear regulator circuit, an emitter electrode coupled to the input of the voltage regulator, and a base electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias circuit. A first capacitor may be coupled between the input and reference terminals of the voltage regulator and a second capacitor may be coupled between the output and reference terminals of the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator may be implemented as known to those skilled in the art, such as an LDO or non-LDO 3-terminal regulator or the like.
The bias circuit may include a bias device and a current source. The bias device has a first terminal coupled to the output terminal of the voltage regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the current control device. The current source has an input coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device and an output coupled to the second terminal of the bias device. A capacitor may be coupled between the first and second terminals of the bias device.
In the bias device and current source embodiment, the bias device may be implemented as a Zener diode, one or more diodes coupled in series, at least one light emitting diode, or any other bias device which develops sufficient voltage while receiving current from the current source. The current source may be implemented with a PNP BJT having its collector electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias device, at least one first resistor having a first end coupled to the emitter electrode of the PNP BJT and a second end, a Zener diode and a second resistor. The Zener diode has an anode coupled to the base electrode of the PNP BJT and a cathode coupled to the second end of the first resistor. The second resistor has a first end coupled to the anode of the Zener diode and a second end coupled to the reference terminal of the voltage regulator. A second Zener diode may be included having an anode coupled to the cathode of the first Zener diode and a cathode coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device.
A circuit is disclosed for improving operation of a linear regulator, having an input terminal, an output terminal, and a reference terminal. The circuit includes an input node, a transistor, a bias circuit, and first and second capacitors. The transistor has a first current electrode coupled to the input node, a second current electrode for coupling to the input terminal of the linear regulator, and a control electrode. The bias circuit has a first terminal for coupling to the output terminal of the linear regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the transistor. The first capacitor is for coupling between the input and reference terminals of the linear regulator, and the second capacitor is for coupling between the output and reference terminals of the linear regulator. The bias circuit develops a voltage sufficient to drive the control terminal of the transistor and to operate the linear regulator. The bias circuit may be a battery, a bias device and a current source, a floating power supply, a charge pump, or any combination thereof. The transistor may be implemented as a BJT or FET or any other suitable current controlled device.



Power Supply: The examples chosen are taken from manufacturers' circuit diagrams and are usually simplified to emphasise the fundamental nature of the circuit. For each example the particular transistor properties that are exploited to achieve the desired performance are made clear. As a rough and ready classification the circuits are arranged in order of frequency: this part is devoted to circuits used at zero frequency, field frequency and audio frequencies. Series Regulator Circuit Portable television receivers are designed to operate from batteries (usually 12V car batteries) and from the a.c. mains. The receiver usually has an 11V supply line, and circuitry is required to ensure that the supply line is at this voltage whether the power source is a battery or the mains. The supply line also needs to have good regulation, i.e. a low output resistance, to ensure that the voltage remains constant in spite of variations in the mean current taken by some of the stages in the receiver. Fig. 1 shows a typical circuit of the power -supply arrangements. The mains transformer and bridge rectifier are designed to deliver about 16V. The battery can be assumed to give just over 12V. Both feed the regulator circuit Trl, Tr2, Tr3, which gives an 11V output and can be regarded as a three -stage direct -coupled amplifier. The first stage Tr 1 is required to give an output current proportional to the difference between two voltages, one being a constant voltage derived from the voltage reference diode D I (which is biased via R3 from the stabilised supply). The second voltage is obtained from a preset potential divider connected across the output of the unit, and is therefore a sample of the output voltage. In effect therefore Tr 1 compares the output voltage of the unit with a fixed voltage and gives an output current proportional to the difference between them. Clearly a field-effect transistor could do this, but the low input resistance of a bipolar transistor is no disadvantage and it can give a current output many times that of a field-effect transistor and is generally preferred therefore. The output current of the first stage is amplified by the two subsequent stages and then becomes the output current of the unit. Clearly therefore Tr2 and Tr3 should be current amplifiers and they normally take the form of emitter followers or common emitter stages (which have the same current gain). By adjusting the preset control we can alter the fraction of the output voltage' applied to the first stage and can thus set the output voltage of the unit at any desired value within a certain range. By making assumptions about the current gain of the transistors we can calculate the degree of regulation obtainable. For example, suppose the gain of Tr2 and Tr3 in cascade is 1,000, and that the current output demanded from the unit changes by 0.1A (for example due to the disconnection of part of the load). The corresponding change in Tr l's collector current is 0.1mA and, if the standing collector current of Tr 1 is 1mA, then its mutual conductance is approximately 4OmA/V and the base voltage must change by 2.5mV to bring about the required change in collector current. If the preset potential divider feeds one half of the output voltage to Tr l's base, then the change in output voltage must be 5mV. Thus an 0.1A change in output current brings about only 5mV change in output voltage: this represents an output resistance of only 0.0552.

- The EHT Output is realized with a selenium rectifier.

The EHT selenium rectifier which is a Specially designed selenium rectifiers were once widely used as EHT rectifiers in television sets and photocopiers. A layer of selenium was applied to a sheet of soft iron foil, and thousands of tiny discs (typically 2mm diameter) were punched out of this and assembled as "stacks" inside ceramic tubes. Rectifiers capable of supplying tens of thousands of volts could be made this way. Their internal resistance was extremely high, but most EHT applications only required a few hundred microamps at most, so this was not normally an issue. With the development of inexpensive high voltage silicon rectifiers, this technology has fallen into disuse.


The CHASSIS BS201-4 Is made by ZANUSSI for the RADIOMARELLI RV687.


Zanussi was an Italian producer of home appliances that in 1984 was bought by Electrolux [1]. Zanussi is a leading brand for domestic kitchen appliances in Europe. Products have been exported from Italy since 1946.

The Zanussi Company began as the small workshop of Antonio Zanussi in 1916. The enterprising 26-year-old son of a blacksmith in Pordenone in Northeastern Italy began the business by making home stoves and wood-burning ovens.
After his father death in 1946 “Lino Zanussi” became the President of the company.
In the early 1970s Zanussi sold a lot in the UK and for some time after under the “Zoppas” brand, name which had been acquired, making Zanussi the first largest Italian appliance maker. They also produced washing machines Hotpoint for Hotpoint at this time which were very reliable and highly rated by users and engineers.
In the late 1970s and into the early 1980s the company had a range of washing machines which used an induction motor with a clutch pulley system. Again this range proved extremely popular and very reliable.
During this period Zanussi Professional, the catering range of appliances for commercial use, became a separate division in its own right.
In the early 1980s Zanussi launched the Jetsystem washing machine range to great acclaim whilst at the same time running the “Appliance Of Science” advertising campaign which is acknowledged as one of the most successful marketing campaigns of all time, in fact still remembered by many today. This gave the brand the impression of being forward thinking and innovative.
Zanussi has recently been rebranded as Zanussi-Electrolux in line with many other Electrolux brand names. Since that time many Zanussi appliances share common components and parts with the rest of the Electrolux range, primarily Electrolux, Tricity Bendix and AEG although it is worth noting that the “John Lewis” branded machines sold by the John Lewis Partnership in the UK are effectively rebranded Zanussi appliances.
In the late 1980s Zanussi launched the split tank design known as the “Nexus Tub” design which endures to this day with little change. The tub, base and certain other parts are made from a plastic material known as “Carboran” which can be re-used several times if recycled. To this day neither Zanussi or Electrolux has provided any way to return this material for recycling purposes.

Up until the end of the 1980s Zanussi service was run from Slough and was a network of independent repairers who gave an unparalleled service level. It is generally acknowledged within the industry that this service network was the best that there has ever been in the UK.
In the early 1990s Electrolux instigated amalgamating all its UK brands under one service entity. This entity was split, dependent on region, between the Zanussi service agents and the local Electrolux Service Centre. In general those in a high population density area where given to the Electrolux employed centres. Tricity Bendix, Electrolux and AEG as well as Zanussi were all to be serviced by the one network.
This was changed in the late 1990s and early 2000s as Electrolux sold or gave away the regional service centres, generally to the existing management or to area managers to run as independent businesses.
This service network was rebranded and became Service Force which still exists today but is, once again, all operated by independent service companies who repair and supply spare parts for all of the brands.


Stern / REX / Zanussi / Seleco (WAS) is an electronics company based in Pordenone, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. It is part of Super//Fluo, who bought the rights in August, 2006, along with Brionvega and Imperial.


Sèleco was born as in 1965 as a spin-off from the home appliances maker Zanussi. In the first years of his life, Seleco produced almost black and white televisions with the Zanussi or Rex brand. The company was being sold in 1984, and was first acquired by Gian Mario Rossignolo. He first became president and then main stockholder.
During the 1980s, the company launched worldwide marketing campaigns and began sponsoring some of the most famous Italian soccer team, such as Lazio A.S..
During the '90s, the company was mainly concentrated on the production of pay-tv decoders, but in 1993 suffered from a loss of competitivity. With the intent to reshape its position and to get gave new life to the company, Gian Mario Rossignolo bought Brionvega from the Brion family, the founder. This attempt get to nowhere, so the company was forced to declare failure in 1997. During the years, Sèleco has passed through ups and downs, at the end being overcome by the continuous changes in the electronics world.
After the crack-down, the company and all its interests were bought by the Formenti family. That gave life to the Seleco-Formenti Group, owner of the rights for the brands Sèleco, Rex, Phonola, Imperial, Stern, Phoenix, Televideon, Kerion and Webrik.
The Formenti family re-launched the company with the production of CRT-TVs. In 2000, the company suffered of a strong crisis, following the price dumping made by Turkish manufacturers. That seems to led to end of the Sèleco and Brionvega story, as the Sèleco-Formenti Group was forced to liquidation.
In 2004, the rights for the radio branch were bought by Sim2 Multimedia, and all the television interests (for the brands Sèleco, Brionvega and Imperial) were acquired by Super//Fluo in August 2006.

THIS INDUSTRY IS TODAY DEAD !!!!

RADIOMARELLI RV687 CHASSIS BS201-4 (ZANUSSI) CRT TUBE FIVRE 17BM120.






























































































The CRT TUBE FIVRE 17BM120 is fabricated by an extint Italian manufacturer.

It's a 110° degree type so it's very compact and isa one of the first of this type and with heavy glass contour.

FIVRE WAS Fabbrica Italiana Valvole Radio Elettriche which was fabricating Picture tubes and Radio Tubes.

FIVRE were established in 1932 as a manufacturer of thermoinic valves.

Cathode ray tubes for monochrome television sets were introduced in 1952.Since then, many millions of FIVRE CRTs have been incorporated in TV sets by most European brand leaders.

In 1976 FIVRE extendet the product rance to include monochrome data display tubes, gaining in a short time a large share of the European market.

The FIVRE range of CRT are used in applications demanding a quality product, in both the civil and military areas, including: high-resolution graphics and desk-top-publishing, radar, large screen dispays and medical equipment; to name but a few.

The technical data in this brochure refers to only a part of the FIVRE product range. Please ask for your specific needs. FIVRE are capable of supplying custom designed CTRs with short lead-times, even with small production quantities. FIVRE”s service to the market s based upon our dynamic approach to R&D, coupled with our flexsible production capability.







GRUNDIG SUPER COLOR 1510 YEAR 1973.

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-jxOdaQOOOh0/T3b6mRwpOZI/AAAAAAAAGmU/hzoCYKs09PQ/s1600/IMGH_01006.jpg






 The GRUNDIG SUPER COLOR 1510 is the first GRUNDIG PORTABLE COLOR TELEVISION.

It's entirely based around semiconductors and features a 3 Inline electron guns cathode ray tube from TOSHIBA.

It has 7 programs with sensoric buttons and potentiometers tuning search system.It has a  sensor keyboard for local commands, includes a plurality of tuning positions each defined by an adjustable potentiometer, a neon bulb indicator, a UHF/VHF switch and a two pole momentary contact touch switch. A common tuning capacitor has a tuning voltage developed thereacross for controlling the tuning of a varactor diode tuner. A source of reference potential is coupled across the tuning potentiometers and closure of any touch switch results in the tuning capacitor being charged from the voltage reference source through the selected one of the tuning potentiometers. The neon bulbs yield a visual indication of the selected tuning position. Circuitry for automatically placing control of the tuner to a preselected one of the tuning positions upon turn on of the receiver is also included.
In the  "recent" introduction (1970's) of several models featuring touch-sensitive tuning is the culmination of a series of developments in television tuning techniques over a long period of time. In the earliest (66/67's) push-button tuner units (v.h.f.) tuning was effected by the extent to which a multiple slug was inserted into the inline signal and oscillator coils. This was an improvement over rotary types of tuner and proved to be very reliable though the reset accuracy tended to diminish after prolonged use. The earlier u.h.f. and integrated or multiband tuners were also purely mechanical in operation and though the designs were considerable technical achievements the push-buttons nevertheless required quite some pressure to effect channel changing. More recently (1970's) with the introduction of varicap tuners channel changing has been done by electrical means. The capacitance of the varicap diodes associated with each of the tuned circuits is altered by changing the bias applied to them. For this a relatively simple switch unit to select the appropriate potentiometer is all that is required. The lightness of touch needed, elimination of mechanical switching problems and the fact that the tuner can be mounted remote from the switch at any convenient place in the cabinet give considerable design advantages. Varicap tuners have also facilitated the application of a.f.c., which is of particular importance in colour receivers. Basic Principles Touch-sensitive control units form a welcome and natural adjunct to the use of varicap tuner units. As they dispense completely with the need for electrical switches and switch contacts they should reduce further the number of service calls for tuning faults. Various circuit arrangements are used in touch - operated tuner control units but all operate when a finger tip bridges a pair of contacts which incidentally look at first glance like a single contact. When the finger tip completes the circuit forward bias is applied to a high gain switching transistor. This in turn switches on another transistor or transistors and the net outcome is that the supply to the appropriate tuning potentiometer is connected and held on while the supply to the previously selected potentiometer is switched off. In addition a channel identfication bulb is usually brought into circuit. As skin resistance is high the touch contacts must be incorporated in a correspondingly high resistance circuit; in practice resistor values in the range 10-22Mohm are used. The switching operations are carried out either by discrete transistors or i.c.s. Transistors form almost ideal switches of course. In the absence of forward base bias the collector emitter resistance  they present is very high especially with silicon types since there is negligible leakage current with these. On the other hand when a transistor is biased fully on, i.e. is saturated or bottomed, the collector current is maximum, the collector voltage minimum and the collector emitter impedance is very little. There is very little dissipation since although the collector current is at maximum the collector emitter voltage is at minimum generally less than 1 Volt.

All other standard commands are even manual.

These tellyes were offering excellent superb picture and they were running warm.

- Horizontal Beam Deflection  and high voltage generating circuits realized with Thyristors circuits.
The massive demand for colour television receivers in Europe/Germany in the 70's  brought about an influx of sets from the continent. Many of these use the thin -neck (29mm) type of 110° shadowmask tube and the Philips 20AX CRT Tube, plus the already Delta Gun CRT . 
Scanning of these tubes is accomplished by means of a toroidally wound deflection yoke (conventional 90° and thick -neck 110° tubes operate with saddle -wound deflection coils). The inductance of a toroidal yoke is very much less than that of a saddle -wound yoke, thus higher scan currents are required. The deflection current necessary for the line scan is about 12A peak -to -peak. This could be provided by a transistor line output stage but a current step-up transformer, which is bulky and both difficult and costly to manufacture, would be required. 
An entirely different approach, pioneered by RCA in America and developed by them and by ITT (SEL) in Germany, is the thyristor line output stage. In this system the scanning current is provided via two thyristors and two switching diodes which due to their characteristics can supply the deflection yoke without a step-up transformer (a small transformer is still required to obtain the input voltage pulse for the e.h.t. tripler). The purpose of this article is to explain the basic operation of such circuits. The thyristor line output circuit offers high reliability since all switching occurs at zero current level. C.R.T. flashovers, which can produce high current surges (up to 60A), have no detrimental effects on the switching diodes or thyristors since the forward voltage drop across these devices is small and the duration of the current pulses short. If a surge limiting resistor is pro- vided in the tube's final anode circuit the peak voltages produced by flashovers seldom exceed the normal repetitive circuit voltages by more than 50-100V. This is well within the device ratings.  It's a very good system to use where the line scan coils require large peak currents with only a moderate flyback voltage  an intrinsic characteristic of toroidally wound deflection coils. The basic thyristor line output stage arrangement used in all these chassis is shown in Fig. 1
it was originally devised by RCA. Many sets fitted with 110°, narrow -neck delta -gun tubes used a thyristor line output stage - for example those in the Grundig and Saba ranges and the Finlux Peacock , Indesit, Siemens, Salora, Metz, Nordmende, Blaupunkt, ITT, Seleco, REX, Mivar, Emerson, Brionvega, Loewe, Galaxi, Stern, Zanussi, Wega, Philco. The circuit continued to find favour in earlier chassis designed for use with in -line gun tubes, examples being found in the Grundig and Korting ranges - also,  Indesit, Siemens, Salora, Metz, Nordmende, Blaupunkt, ITT, Seleco, REX, Mivar, Emerson, Brionvega, Loewe, Galaxi, Stern, Zanussi, Wega, Philco the Rediffusion Mk. III chassis. Deflection currents of up to 13A peak -to -peak are commonly encountered with 110° tubes, with a flyback voltage of only some 600V peak  to peak. The total energy requirement is of the order of 6mJ, which is 50 per cent higher than modern 110° tubes of the 30AX and S4 variety with their saddle -wound line scan coils.   The only problem with this type of circuit is the large amount of energy that shuttles back and forth at line frequency. This places a heavy stress on certain components. Circuit losses produce quite high temperatures, which are concentrated at certain points, in particular the commutating combi coil. This leads to deterioration of the soldered joints around the coil, a common cause of failure. This can have a cumulative effect, a high resistance joint increasing the local heating until the joint becomes well and truly dry -a classic symptom with some Grundig / Emerson sets. The wound components themselves can be a source of trouble, due to losses - particularly the combi coil and the regulating transductor. Later chassis are less prone to this sort of thing, partly because of the use of later generation, higher efficiency yokes but mainly due to more generous and better design of the wound components. The ideal dielectric for use in the tuning capacitors is polypropylene (either metalised or film). It's a truly won- derful dielectric - very stable, with very small losses, and capable of operation at high frequencies and elevated temperatures. It's also nowadays reasonably inexpensive. Unfortunately many earlier chassis of this type used polyester capacitors, and it's no surprise that they were inclined to give up. When replacing the tuning capacitors in a thyristor line output stage it's essential to use polypropylene types -a good range of axial components with values ranging from 0.001µF to 047µF is available from RS Components, enabling even non-standard values to be made up from an appropriate combination. Using polypropylene capacitors in place of polyester ones will not only ensure capacitor reliability but will also lower the stress on other components by reducing the circuit losses (and hence power consumption).
       Numerous circuit designs for completely transistorized television receivers either have been incorporated in commercially available receivers or have been described in detail in various technical publications. One of the most troublesome areas in such transistor receivers, from the point of View of reliability and economy, lies in the horizontal deflection circuits.
       As an attempt to avoid the voltage and current limitations of transistor deflection circuits, a number of circuits have been proposed utilizing the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), a semiconductor device capable of handling substantially higher currents and voltages than transistors.
       The circuit utilizes two bi-directionally conductive switching means which serve respectively as trace and commutating switches. Particularly, each of the switching means comprises the parallel combination of a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and a diode. The commutating switch is triggered on shortly before the desired beginning of retrace and, in conjunction with a resonant commutating circuit having an inductor and two capacitors, serves to turn off the trace switch to initiate retrace. The commutating circuit is also arranged to turn oft the commutating SCR before the end of retrace. 

For first time features a completely modular chassis for a portable, with complex circuitry.


The set is build with a Modular chassis design because as modern television receivers become more complex the problem of repairing the receiver becomes more difficult. As the number of components used in the television receiver increases the susceptibility to breakdown increases and it becomes more difficult to replace defective components as they are more closely spaced. The problem has become even more complicated with the increasing number of color television receivers in use. A color television receiver has a larger number of circuits of a higher degree of complexity than the black and white receiver and further a more highly trained serviceman is required to properly service the color television receiver.
Fortunately for the service problem to date, most failures occur in the vacuum tubes used in the television receivers. A faulty or inoperative vacuum tube is relatively easy to find and replace. However, where the television receiver malfunction is caused by the failure of other components, such as resistors, capacitors or inductors, it is harder to isolate the defective component and a higher degree of skill on the part of the serviceman is required.
Even with the great majority of the color television receiver malfunctions being of the "easy to find and repair" type proper servicing of color sets has been difficult to obtain due to the shortage of trained serviceman.
At the present time advances in the state of the semiconductor art have led to the increasing use of transistors in color television receivers. The receiver described in this application has only two tubes, the picture tube and the high voltage rectifier tube, all the other active components in the receiver being semiconductors.
One important characteristic of a semiconductor device is its extreme reliability in comparison with the vacuum tube. The number of transistor and integrated circuit failures in the television receiver will be very low in comparison with the failures of other components, the reverse of what is true in present day color television receivers. Thus most failures in future television receivers will be of the hard to service type and will require more highly qualified servicemen.
The primary symptoms of a television receiver malfunction are shown on the picture tube of the television receiver while the components causing the malfunction are located within the cabinet. Also many adjustments to the receiver require the serviceman to observe the screen. Thus the serviceman must use unsatisfactory mirror arrangements to remove the electronic chassis from the cabinet, usually a very difficult task. Further many components are "buried" in a maze of circuitry and other components so that they are difficult to remove and replace without damage to other components in the receiver.
Repairing a modern color television receiver often requires that the receiver be removed from the home and carried to a repair shop where it may remain for many weeks. This is an expensive undertaking since most receivers are bulky and heavy enough to require at least two persons to carry them. Further, two trips must be made to the home, one to pick up the receiver and one to deliver it. For these reasons, the cost of maintaining the color television receiver in operating condition often exceeds the initial cost of the receiver and is an important factor in determining whether a receiver will be purchased.
Therefore, the object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the main electronic chassis is easily accessible for maintenance and adjustment. Another object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the electronic circuits are divided into a plurality of modules with the modules easily removable for service and maintenance. The main electronic chassis is slidably mounted within the cabinet so that it may be withdrawn, in the same manner as a drawer, to expose the electronic circuitry therein for maintenance and adjustment from the rear closure panel after easy removal. Another aspect is the capability to be serviced at eventually the home of the owner.





NOTE: The set here shown has a very big hour count of use but still running fine, for that note the upside aperture grille for airing . They're yellowish colored because of the long warmness performed during very heavy long use.





Grundig AG is (WAS) a German manufacturer of consumer electronics for home entertainment which transferred to Turkish control in the period 2004-2007. Established in 1945 in Nuremberg, Germany by Max Grundig the company changed hands several times before becoming part of the Turkish Koç Holding group. In 2007, after buying control of the Grundig brand, Koc renamed its Beko Elektronik white goods and consumer electronics division Grundig Elektronik A.Ş., which has decided to merge with Arçelik A.Ş. as declared on February 27, 2009


Max Grundig (7 May 1908 – 8 December 1989) was the founder of electronics company Grundig AG.Max Grundig is one of the leading business personalities of West German post-war society, one of the men responsible for the German “Wirtschaftswunder” (post-war economic boom).


GRUNDIG Early years

Max Grundig was born in Nuremberg on May 7, 1908. His father died early, so Max and his three sisters grew up in a home without a father. At 16, Max Grundig began to be fascinated by radio technology, which at the time was gaining in popularity. He built his first detector in the family’s apartment, which he had turned into his own laboratory. In 1930, he turned his hobby into his profession and opened a shop for radio sets in Fürth with an associate. The business prospered and soon Grundig was able to employ his sisters and buy out his associate. By 1938, he was already manufacturing 30,000 small transformers.


GRUNDIG Success after World War II

Max Grundig’s real success story began after World War II. On May 15, 1945, Grundig opened a production facility for universal transformers at Jakobinerstraße 24 in Fürth. Using machines and supplies from the war era, he established the basis for what would turn into a global company at this address. In addition to transformers, Grundig soon manufactured tube-testing devices. As manufacturing radios was subject to a licence, Grundig had the brilliant idea of developing a kit that would allow anyone to quickly build a radio on their own. This kit was sold as a “toy” called “Heinzelmann”.


Following the monetary reform, Max Grundig quickly expanded his production under the new company name “Grundig Radio-Werke GmbH” and served the expanding mass market. From 1952, his company was the biggest European manufacturer of radios and the worldwide leader in the production of audio tape recorders.



Grundig became a real pioneer in consumer electronics. From 1951, the company’s portfolio also included the production and distribution of television sets, and dictaphones were added in 1954. The company was turned into a shareholding company, the Grundig AG, in 1971. In the 1970s, the company was one of the leading companies in Germany, employing more than 38,000 people in 1979. Max Grundig had built a strong company from the ruins of the war.


GRUNDIG and the rules are changing

In the second half of the 1970s, another innovation entered the market for consumer electronics, the VCR. And with the VCR, competitors from Japan and later other countries of the Far East entered the world market. Even though the European competitors Philips and Grundig had developed the superior technology for recording video, the Japanese VHS succeeded on the market. The rules of the game changed dramatically in the field of consumer electronics. The competition for establishing the video standard proved that companies could only succeed in consumer electronics with the financial power of global corporations. In 1979, Max Grundig decided to sell some shares to his Dutch competitor Philips, and in 1984 he began the process of restructuring the ownership of the Grundig companies, which would be completed two decades later.



Max Grundig died on December 8, 1989 in Baden-Baden. The Grundig name continues to be known to this day and is now a globally recognised brand for innovative consumer electronics. Max Grundig is remembered in Germany as a dynamic entrepreneur from the post-war era.


Max GRUNDIG: Born on 7 May 1908 in the Denis Street 3 in Nuremberg
 workers district Gostenhof Parents of "Magaziners" or warehouse worker Max Emil and his wife Marie. The enlargement of the family through the birth of three sisters require in the aftermath several moves within Nuremberg.
In 1920, his father died unexpectedly at the consequences of an appendectomy. The already poor family is financially worse rapidly. This is followed by further moves into ever smaller and cheaper housing. Max Grundig starts in April 1922 commercial apprenticeship at the installation company Jean Hilpert in Nuremberg. His interest lies in the crafting of radios, a hobby, the early 1920s was indulged by tech-savvy youngsters often. But Max Grundig tinkering not only simple radios, but also more complex technical equipment such as image receiver.(Photos refering to
Father and Mother of Max GRUNDIG.)

After the end of his teaching is Max Grundig 1927 Head of a new branch of the company in Fürth Hilpert and supervised by commercial side of the installation work of the under construction Municipal Hospital Fürth. In May 1928 and in October 1930 Grundig also occurs on a radio dealer and take part in an event organized by Workers' Radio Association Germany on the occasion of Fürth Kirchweih 1930 radios exhibition. A first marriage in 1929 held only briefly. From her daughter Inge comes.
Following the closure of Fürth Branch company Hilpert for the finished installation works at the hospital, Max Grundig together with Karl Wurzer, who was funders primarily, on 15 November 1930 as a radio dealer in Sternstraße 4 in Fürth independently. Today this street Ludwig-Erhard-Straße is, since there - was directly opposite the first by Max Grundig Radio Load - - the business of the parents of the future economy minister and Chancellor Ludwig Erhard (1977 1897).
His radio action called Max Grundig "Radio Sales Fürth" short RVF. On June 21, 1934, a procession of RVF in the Schwabacher Straße carried 1. The partnership Karl Wurzer is paid, Max Grundig is now the sole owner. In addition to selling and repairing radios Grundig starts construction of transformers. In 1938, he is Sales millionaire. In the same year he married the singer and manufacturer's daughter Annelie Jorgensen. The marriage remains childless.

During the Second World War Grundig continues its production of small transformers continued on a larger scale in the Fürth suburb Vach, where he rents rooms in three inns. He himself is in 1941 drafted into the army, some time must remain as a corporal in Paris, but shortly before his entire company is reassigned to the East - also because of its possibilities, to provide supervisors with radios - "indispensable" (uk) provided and forwards Fuerth his company to continue the war.

On 18 May 1945, the US Army occupied the suburb Vach. Grundig's stock will not be plundered, neither of German or foreign looters nor by the US military because the workforce that consists partly of Ukrainian slave laborers, has a sign "Off limits" - "no trespassing" - at the door, protects the company. In June 1945, Grundig rented a factory building in the Jakobinenstraße 24 in Fürth. are manufactured now transformers and measuring instruments: The tube tester "Tubatest" and the fault locator "Nova Test". The commercial license is replaced by the Radio-sales Fürth on 7 November 1945. In December 1945, Grundig has 42 employees.

On April 10, 1946 Max Grundig starts own production of radios. His first instrument is the "Heinzelmann" This radio can also complete as a kit or under the hand, but are always acquired without tubes. But the tubes are widely available on the black markets of the early postwar years. Since a wireless without tubes per se is not operational, allowing the American military government Max Grundig, "no quota", ie without limitation in quantity, produce radio and distribute. With the mass sale of "Heinzelmann" Max Grundig creates the basis for further economic success of the company as a manufacturing company after the Second World War.
As of August 1, 1946 is the company "RVF - Electrotechnical Factory". Beginning in March 1947, work began in the Kurgartenstraße 37 in Fuerth, the later main plant of the company Grundig. On 7 July 1948 re-naming of the company is carried out in "Grundig radio-Werk GmbH". As of spring 1948, the superhit radio "Weltklang" comes on the market. In February 1949, the 100,000th Wireless is already prepared. In the same year built a Grundig FM radio stations trying to prepare for the introduction of the ultra-short wave on 15 March 1950. In December 1949 the company Grundig counts 1,600 employees.

In May 1951 Max Grundig acquires Lumophon radio stations in Nuremberg and Georgensgmünd and integrates them into its "Grundig radio-Werke GmbH". In September and October 1951, he is with a purpose-built television station Directorate building his company in Fürth the first public television broadcasts in Southern Germany. he produced 94 televisions this year. The production of tape recorders starts 1951st
1954 lets Max Grundig his first dictation machine, the "Stenorette" build. In 1957 he buys the office machine manufacturer Triumph-Adler in Nuremberg and Adler in Frankfurt that remain until 1968 in his possession. In 1958 he founds the Grundig Bank in Fürth. In the same year, with the introduction of the transistor instead of the Radio tube, penetrate the first Japanese companies like Sony in the European and German market, initially still in the lowest price segment. 1960 Grundig has 16,495 employees.

The 1960s are marked by the further expansion of the company: Grundig is the biggest radio manufacturer in Europe. In 1961 he acquired a large area in Nuremberg-Langwasser, on the 1963 first tape recorders are produced. In other parts of Germany companies to buy or newly built shortly afterwards in Italy and Austria.
1964 leads the Dutch company Philips in tape recorders, the compact cassette CC and thus the cassette recorder, and it initially in the lower price range. The leader Grundig countered in 1965 with the cassette system DC International, but can not prevail.
After 1967, the beginning of color television initially causes a strong boom in the production of related hardware. This results not only in their own country overcapacity, but the Japanese competition suppressed due to lower wages and production costs at the same time always noticeable with affordable devices on the European and German market.
1969 bring the company Philips and Grundig together the first video recorder for home appliances on the market. It is still a tape machine. But soon the world led the struggle for the enforcement of various video cassette systems begins.

In 1970, Grundig has approximately 25,000 employees. This year, Max Grundig builds to his company. He built on 22 February 1970, the "Max Grundig Foundation", added on 12 March 1970, the "Grundig-family club". The Max Grundig Foundation is now the sole owner. In addition, on 1 April 1972, the "Grundig-Werke GmbH" in a corporation, the "Grundig AG" converted. The foundation holds about 94% of the capital.
From 1970, the television production is relocated to Nuremberg-Langwasser. The expectations regarding equipment sales for the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich true. With the Super-Color TVs a new product range is presented in a modular design. In Nuremberg-Langwasser, daily production reached 1,200 color TV.
1977 founds the Grundig "Hotel Management Max Grundig Foundation". The Hotel Forsthaus Fuerth and Hotel Fuschl near Salzburg to buy. A year later Grundig donates 30 million DM for the "Grundig Academy of Economics and Technology", which serves the training of professionals and executives. 1978 produced in Langwasser also a new VCR plant.
Increasingly Max Grundig is weakened by illness, repeated he needs surgery. The European consumer electronics industry is committed to strategies against existing overcapacity and the growing economic influence of companies from the Far East. In Europe, these are mainly the French state company Thomson-Brandt, the Dutch company Philips and Grundig.
The cooperation with the Dutch company Philips thickens in the VCR production. In 1979 share swaps. Philips makes 24.5% of the shares of Grundig AG, Grundig 6% of Philips and is thereby the largest single shareholder.


1979 achieved the Grundig AG with 38,460 employees worldwide their personal peak. The company has 31 plants, nine branches with 20 branches and three Werksvertretungen, eight sales companies and 200 worldwide export missions. Also, sales continue to rise. But the profit is shrinking. In 1981, the Grundig AG writes first losses. After divorcing his second wife Annelie Max Grundig marries 1980, the French woman Chantal Girard. In the same year the daughter Marie was born.
1982 at the presentation of "Eduard Rhein honor ring" and before the European Commission, presents Max Grundig be EURO concept, the united front of the European consumer electronics market to Japanese companies: "Acting together, jointly produce, market share". But he can not prevail. Too much stalking and distrusts you also mutually in the European broadcasting industry. And Japan is not the only competitor. An agreement between the companies Grundig and Thomson-Brandt, which is scheduled also built in 1982, can - among other things due to the resistance of the Bundeskartellamt and because the company Philips is involved in Grundig - not be implemented.
On 26 March 1984 Philips increased its share of Grundig AG by 7.1% to 31.6%. In April 1984, the Federal Cartel Office approved the merger of Grundig and Philips under the condition that Grundig sells its voice recorders range. New CEO of Grundig AG is the Dutchman Hermanus Koning on April 1 (1924 - 1998). From 1984 to 1998, the Dutch have entrepreneurial saying. Max Grundig receives for his departure from the company, among other things a guaranteed 20-year-income annual return of 50 million marks.
Not quite voluntarily leaving Max Grundig the company he has built up and which bears his name. But there can be only one boss. 1985 must Grundig also his top job at the Grundig-Bank ad, which is sold to a Swiss institute.
Grundig expands its hotel ownership, 1986, he acquired the luxury hotel "Bühlerhöhe", which he renovated at great expense. On 8 December 1989 Max Grundig dies. Under great public participation he will be buried in Baden-Baden.

After a brief economic boom as a result of German reunification takes place until 1991 a rapid decline of the company Grundig. Between 1992 and 1996 the Grundig Group makes almost two billion marks loss. The number of employees decreased from 16,250 to 8,580 employees.
1998, the Philips Group withdraws. According to its own description Philips has been paying 1.5 billion marks. A consortium of banks and insurance companies under the leadership of the antenna manufacturer Kathrein, the personally liable partners of Kathrein Werke KG, takes on 18 December 1998 the Grundig AG.

In 2000 and 2001, the company headquarters and the remaining departments of Fürth be routed to Nuremberg. But Grundig continues to make losses. On 1 April 2003, Grundig AG announces insolvency.
2004 Turkey company Beko electronics in Istanbul, belonging to the Turkish Koc Holding, together with the British company Alba Radio Ltd. accepts the division consumer electronics. This company is now called "Grundig Intermedia". Both companies each own fifty percent of "Grundig Multimedia B.V.", which is a holding full ownership of Grundig Intermedia GmbH. In addition, proceeds from the office equipment division as buy-out the company "Grundig Business Systems" produced. The car radio range is taken from the Delphi Corporation, the activities of the former Grundig range satellites for "Grundig SAT Systems GmbH".
In October 2006 and January 2007, two production lines for TV at Grundig Elektronik in Istanbul are put into operation. On 18 December 2007, Koç Group acquires through its subsidiary Arçelik A.S. the shares of Alba plc. And that is the sole owner of Grundig Multimedia B.V. or the Grundig Intermedia GmbH. The development area in Nuremberg closes the end of 2008 as part of an ending in 2009 the restructuring process. When Grundig headquarters in Nuremberg with around 140 employees Sales, marketing, communications, design, quality assurance, customer service and the office staff remain. The Turkish Grundig Intermedia GmbH is now divided into six product areas: TV, Audio, HiFi, "Personal Care", "Floor Care" and kitchen appliances.

The Radio Museum in Fürth, located in the former Directorate of Max Grundig, shows in addition to the history of the development of broadcasting in Germany and the corporate and entrepreneurial story of Max Grundig, the man who the radio and television development in Germany after the Second World War three has for decades dominated the market leader.

He was married lastly to Chantal Grundig.


Early history

The history of the company began in 1930 with the establishment of a store named Fuerth, Grundig & Wurzer (RVF), which sold radios. After World War II Max Grundig recognized the need for radios in Germany, and in 1947 produced a kit, while a factory and administration centre were under construction at Fürth. In 1951 the first televisions were manufactured at the new facility with the company and the surrounding area growing rapidly. At the time Grundig was the largest radio manufacturer in Europe. Divisions in Nuremberg, Frankfurt and Karlsruhe were set up.

Grundig in Belfast

A plant was opened in 1960 to manufacture tape recorders in Belfast, Northern Ireland, the first production by Grundig outside Germany. The managing director of the plant Thomas Niedermayer, was kidnapped and later killed by the Provisional IRA in December 1973. The factory was closed with the loss of around 1000 jobs in 1980.

Philips takeover

In 1972, Grundig GmbH became Grundig AG. After this Philips began to gradually accumulate shares in the company over the course of many years, and assumed complete control in 1993. Philips resold Grundig to a Bavarian consortium in 1998 due to unsatisfactory performance.

Later history

At the end of June 2000 the company relocated its headquarters in Fürth and Nuremberg. Grundig lost €1.281 million the following year. In autumn 2002, Grundig's banks did not extend the company's lines of credit, leaving the company with an April 2003 deadline to announce insolvency. Grundig AG declared bankruptcy in 2003, selling its satellite equipment division to Thomson. In 2004 Britain's Alba plc and the Turkish Koc's Beko jointly took over Grundig Home InterMedia System, Grundig's consumer electronics division. In 2007 Alba sold its half of the business to Beko for US$50.3 million, although it retained the licence to use the Grundig brand in the UK until 2010, and in Australasia until 2012.




















................The Federal Republic of Germany: struggling to stay on its feet ?

For more than thirty years after the Second World War, consumer
electronics in West Germany, as elsewhere, was a growth industry.
Output growth in the industry was sustained by buoyant consumer
demand for successive generations of new or modified products,
such as radios (which had already begun to be manufactured, of
course, before the Second World War), black-and-white and then
colour television sets, hi-fi equipment.” Among the largest West
European states, West Germany had by far the strongest industry.
Even as recently as 1982, West Germany accounted for 60 per cent
of the consumer electronics production in the four biggest EEC
states. The West German industry developed a strong export
orientation--in the early 1980s as much as 60 per cent of West
German production was exported, and West Germany held a larger
share of the world marltet than any other national industry apart
from the]apanese.ltwas also technologicallyextremelyinnovative-
the first tape recorders, the PAL colour television technology, and
the technology which later permitted the development of the video
cassette recorder all originated in West Germany.

The standard-bearers of the West German consumer electronics
industry were the owner-managed firm, Grundig, and Telefunken,
which belonged to the electrical engineering conglomerate, AEG-
Telefunlten. The technological innovations for which the West
German industry became famous all stemmed from the laboratories
of Telefunlten, which, in the 19605, still constituted one of AEG’s
most profitable divisions. Telefunlcen and Grundig together prob-
ably accounted for around one-third of employment in the German
Industry in the mid-1970s. Both had extensive foreign production
facilities. At the same time, compared with the other EEC states,
there was still a relatively large number of small and medium-sized
consumer electronics firms in Germany. Besides Grundig and
Telefunken, the biggest were Blaupunkt, a subsidiary of Bosch, the
automobile components manufacturer, Siemens, and the sub-
sidiaries of the ITT-owned firm, SEL. Up until the late 1970s, there
was relatively little foreign-owned manufacturing capacity in the
West German consumer electronics industry.

GOVERNMENTS, MARKETS, AND REGULATION
During the 1970s, this picture of a strong West German
consumer electronics industry began slowly to change and, by the
end of the 19705, colour television manufacture no longer offered a
guarantee for the continued prosperity or even survival of the
German industry. The market for colour television sets was
increasingly saturated——by 1978 56 per cent of all households in
West Germany had a colour television set and 93 per cent of all
households possessed a television set of some kind.2° From 1978
onwards, the West German market for colour television sets began
to contract. Moreover, the PAL patents began to expire around
1980 and the West German firms then became exposed to more
intense competition on the (declining) domestic market.

The West German firms’ best chances for maintaining or
expanding output and profitability lay in their transition to the
manufacture of a new generation of consumer electronics products,
that of the video cassette recorder (VCR). Between 1978 and 1983,
the West German market for VCRs expanded more than tenfold, so
that, by the latter year, VCRs accounted for over a fifth of the
overall consumer electronics market.“ However, in this product
segment, Grundig was the only West German firm which, in
conjunction with Philips, managed to establish a foothold, while
the other firms opted to assemble and/or sell VCRs manufactured
according to one or the other of the two Japanese video
technologies. By 1981, the West German VCR market was more
tightly in the grip of Japanese firms than any other segment of the
market. More than any other, this development accounted for the
growing crisis of the West German consumer electronics industry in
the early 1980s. The West German market stagnated, production
declined as foreign firms conquered a growing share of the
domestic market and this trend was not offset by an expansion of
exports, production processes were rationalized to try to cut costs
as prices fell, employment contracted,” and more and more plants
were either shut down or—more frequently——taken over.

The relationship between the state and the consumer electronics
industry in the long post-war economic ‘boom’ was of the ‘arm’s
length’ kind which corresponded to the West German philosophy
of the ‘social market economy’. The state's role was confined
largely to ‘holding the ring’ for the firms and trying to ensure by
means of competition policy that mergers and take-overs did not
enable any single firm or group of firms to achieve a position of
market domination and suspend the ‘free play of market forces’.

The implementation of competition policy was the responsibility of
the Federal Cartel Office (FCO), which must be informed of any
planned mergers or take-overs if the two firms each have a turnover
exceeding 1 DM billion or one of them has a turnover of more than
2 DM billion. The FCC must reject any proposed merger which, in
its view, would lead to the emergence of a, or strengthen any
existing, position of market domination.“

Decisions of the FCO may be contested in the Courts, and firms
whose merger or take-over plans have been rejected by the Cartel
Office may appeal for permission to proceed with their plans to the
Federal Economics Minister. He is empowered by law to grant such
permission when it is justified by an ‘overriding public interest’ or
‘macroeconomic benefits’, which may relate to competitiveness on
export markets, employment, and defence or energy policy.”
However, the state had no positive strategy for the consumer
electronics industry and industry, for its part, appeared to have no
demands on the state, other than that, through its macroeconomic
policies, it should provide a favourable business environment. This
situation changed only when, as from the late 1970s onwards, the
Japanese export offensive in consumer electronics plunged the West
German industry into an even deeper crisis.

The Politics of European Restructuring
The burgeoning crisis of not only the West German, but also the
other national consumer electronics industries in the EC in the
early 1980s prompted pleas from the firms (and also organized
labour) for protective intervention by the state——by the European
Community as well as by its respective national Member States.
The partial ‘Europeanization’ of consumer electronics politics
reflected the strategies chosen and pursued by the major European
firms to try to counter, or avoid, the Japanese challenge. These
strategies contained two major elements:  measures of at least
temporary protection against Japanese imports to give the firms
breathing space to build up or modernize their production
capacities and improve their competitiveness uis-ci-uis the Japanese
and partly also to put pressure on the Japanese to establish
production facilities in Europe and produce under the same
conditions as the European firms and (b), through mergers, take-
overs, and co-operation agreements, to regroup forces with the aim
of achieving similar economies of scale to those enjoyed by the most
powerful Japanese firms. The first element of these strategies
implicated the European Community in so far as it is responsible
for the trade policies of its Member States. The second element did
not necessarily involve the European Community, but had a Euro-
pean dimension to the extent that most of the take-overs and mergers
envisaged in the restructuring of the industry involved firms from
two or more of the EEC Member States, including the French state-
owned Thomson (see above). As this ‘regrouping of the forces’ of
the European consumer electronics industry was to unfold at first
largely on the West German market, the firms could only
implement their strategies once they had obtained the all-clear of
the FCO or, failing that, of the Federal Economics Ministry.

The Politics of Video Recorder Trade between japan and the EEC:

The Dutch-based multinational conglomerate, Philips, 
was the first
firm in the world to bring a VCR on to the market. Between 1972
and 1975, it had no competitors at all in VCR manufacture and, as
late as 1977, it split up the European market with Grundig, with
which Philips developed the V2000 VCR which came on to the
market in 1980. By this time, the Japanese consumer electronics
firms had already built up massive VCR production capacities and
had cornered first their own market and then, unchallenged by the
European firms, the American as well. With the advantage of much
greater economies of scale, they were able to manufacture and offer
VCRs more cheaply than Philips and Grundig when the VCR
market did eventually ‘take off‘ in Western Europe. German
imports of VCRs, for example, increased almost eightfold between
1978 and 1981.2

The immediate background to the calls for protection against
imported Japanese VCRs by European VCR manufacturing firms
was formed by massive cuts in prices for Japanese VCRs, as a
consequence of which, in 1982, the market share held by the V2000
VCR manufactured by Philips and Grundig declined sharply.”
Losses incurred in VCR manufacture led to a dramatic worsening
of Grundig’s financial position. In November 1982 Philips and
Grundig announced that they were considering taking a dumping
case against the Japanese to the European Commission. The case,
which was later withdrawn, can be seen as the first move in a
political campaign designed to secure controls or restraints on
Japanese VCR exports to the EEC states. This campaign was
pursued at the national and European levels, both through the
national and European trade associations for consumer electronics
firms and particularly through direct intervention by the firms at
the national governments and the European Commission. However,
the European firms, many of whom had licensing agreements with
the Japanese, were far from being united behind it.

Philips, seconded by its VCR partner, Grundig, was the ‘real
protagonist’ of protectionist measures against Japanese VCRs. In
pressing their case on EEC member states and the European
Commission, they emphasized the unfair trading practices of the
Japanese in building up production capacities which could meet the
entire world demand for VCRs (‘laser-beaming’), and the threats
which the Japanese export offensive posed to jobs in Western
Europe and to the maintenance of the firms’ R. 8: D. capacity and
technological know-how. Above all, however, was the threat which
the crisis in VCR trade and the consumer electronics industry
generally posed to the survival of a European microelectronic
components industry, over half of whose output, according to
Grundig, was absorbed in consumer electronics products.”

These arguments found by all accounts a very receptive audience
at the European Commission, where, by common consent of
German participants in the policy-formation process, Philips wields
great political influence. By all accounts, Philips‘s pressure was also
responsible for the conversion to the protectionist camp of the
Dutch Government, which hitherto had been a bastion of free trade
philosophy within the EEC. By imposing unilateral import controls
through the channelling of imported VCRs through the customs
depot at Poitiers (see above), the French Government had already
staked out its position on VCR trade with Japan. It presumably
required no convincing by Philips and Grundig on the issue,
although it is interesting to speculate over the extent to which its
stance also reflected the preferences of Thomson which in the past
had been the ‘chief of the protectionists’ in the European
industry.”

With the Dutch Government having been shifted into the
protectionist camp by Philips, the greatest resistance to the

mposition of some form of import controls on Japanese VCRs

could have been expected to come from the West German
Government. Along with the Danish and (hitherto) the Dutch
Governments, the West German Government had generally been
the stoutest defender of free trade among the EEC Member States.
The Federal Economics Ministry’s antipathy towards import
controls may in fact have had some impact on the form of
protection ultimately agreed by the EEC Council of Ministers,
which was a ‘voluntary self-restraint agreement’ with japan.
However, even such self-restraint agreements had in the past been
vetoed by West Germany in the Council. The West German
Government’s abstention in the vote on the agreement in the
Council of Ministers signified if not a radical, then none the less a
significant, modification of its past trade policy.

Within the Bonn Economics Ministry, the section for the
electrical engineering industry-—characteristically—had the most
receptive attitude to the V2000 firms’ case. Elsewhere in the
Ministry, in the trade and European policy and policy principles
divisions and at the summit, the Ministry’s traditional policy in
favour of free trade was given up much more reluctantly. The
Ministry did not oppose the voluntary restraint agreement after it
had been negotiated, but it may be questioned whether the
Ministry’s acquiescence in the agreement was motivated solely by its
feeling of impotence vis-£1-vis the united will of the other Member
States. Abstaining on the vote in the Council of Ministers enabled
the V2000 protectionist lobby to reap its benefits without the West
German Government being held responsible for its implementation.
The Govemment’s abstention may equally have been the result of
the pressure exerted on the Economics Ministry by the V2000
firms, particularly Philips and Grundig, both of which engaged in
bilateral talks with the Ministry, and from the consumer electronics
sub-association of the electrical engineering trade association of the
ZVEI (Zentralverband der Elektrotechnischen lndustrie), in which
a majority of the member firms had sided with Philips and Grundig.
The Ministry, by its own admission, did not listen as closely to the
firms which were simply marketing Japanese VCRs as to those
which actually manufactured VCRs in Europe: ‘we were interested
in increasing the local content (of VCRs) to preserve jobs.’

The success of the V2000 firms in obtaining any agreement at all
from the Japanese to restrain their exports of VCRs to the EEC
does not mean that they were happy with all aspects of the
agreement, least of all with its contents concerning VCR prices and
concrete quotas which were agreed with the Japanese. As the
market subsequently expanded less rapidly than the European
Commission had anticipated, the quota allocated to Japanese
imports (including the ‘kits’ assembled by European licensees of
Japanese firms) amounted to a larger share of the market than
expected and the European VCR manufacturers did not sell as
many VCRs as the agreement provided. Ironically, within a year of
the adoption of the agreement, both Philips and Grundig announced
that they were beginning to manufacture VCRs according to the
Japanese VHS technology and by the time the agreement had
expired (to be superceded by increased tariffs for VCRs) in 1985,
the two firms had stopped manufacturing V2000 VCRs altogether.

The Politics of Transnational European Mergers and Take-overs
The wave of merger and take-over activity in the European
consumer electronics industry which peaked around 1982 and
1983 had begun in West Gemany in the late 1970s, when Thomson
swallowed up several of the smaller West German firms- Normende,
Dual, and Saba ...and Philips, apparently reacting to the threat it
perceived Thomson as posing to its West German interests, bought
a 24.5 per cent shareholding in Grundig.3° The frenzied series of
successful and unsuccessful merger and take-over bids which
unfolded in 1982 and 1983 is inseparable from the growing crisis of
the European industry and the major European firms’ perceptions
as to how they could restructure in order to survive in the face of
Japanese competition.

The first candidate which emerged for take-over on the West
German market was Telefunken, for which AEG, itself in desperate
financial straits, had been seeking a buyer since the late 1970s.
Telefunken’s heavy indebtedness, which was largely a consequence
of losses it had incurred in its foreign operations, posed a
formidable obstacle to its disposal, however, and first Thomson,
which had bought AEG’s tube factory, and then Grundig, baulked
at taking it on as long as AEG had not paid off its debts. While talks
on Telefunken’s possible sale to Grundig were still going on in
1982, Grundig’s own financial position was quickly worsening as a
result primarily of its mounting losses in VCR manufacture.

Grundig confessed publicly that if the firm carried on five more
years as it was doing, it would ‘go under like AEG’, which, in
summer 1982, had become insolvent. Grundig intensified his search
for stronger partners, which he had apparently begun by talking
with Siemens in 1981. In late 1982, at the same time as Grundig
and Philips were pressing for curbs on Japanese VCR imports,
Grundig floated the idea of creating, based around Grundig, a
European consumer electronics ‘superfirm’ involving Philips,
Thomson, Bosch, Siemens, SEL, and Telefunken. Most of the
prospective participants in such a venture were unenthusiastic
about Grundig’s plans, however, and the outcome of Grundig’s
search for a partner or partners to secure its survival was that
Thomson offered to buy a 75.5 per cent shareholding in the firm.

Political opinion in West Germany was overwhelmingly, if not
indeed uniformly, hostile to Thomson’s plan to take over Grundig.
The political difficulties which Thomson and Grundig faced in
securing special ministerial permission for their deal were exacer-
bated by the probability of job losses given a rapidly deteriorating
labour market situation, and by the fact that, as late as 1982 and
early 1983, an election campaign was in progress. Moreover, the
Federal Economics Ministry was apparently concerned that, if
Thomson took over Grundig, the West German Government would
have been exposed to the danger of trade policy blackmail from the
French Government, which could then have demanded increased
protection for the European consumer electronics industry as the
price for Thomson not running down employment at Grundig (and
in other West German subsidiaries).

The decisive obstacle to Thomson's taking over Grundig,
however, lay not with the position of the Federal Economics
Ministry (or that of the Government or the FCO or the Deutsche
Bank), but rather in that of Grundig’s minority shareholder,

Philips. Against expectations, the FCO announced that it would
approve the take-over, but only provided that Philips gave up its
shareholding in Grundig and that Grundig also abandoned its plans
to assume control of Telefunken. As talks on Grundig’s plan to take
over Telefunken had already been suspended, the latter condition
posed no problem to Thomson’s taking over Grundig.

Once it had been put on the spot by the FCO's decision, Philips
was forced to leave its cover and declare that it would not withdraw
from Grundig. Apart from its general concern at being confronted
with an equally strong competitor on the European consumer
electronics market, Philips’s motives in thwarting Thomson's take-
over of Grundig were probably twofold. First, Thomson evidently
did not want to commit itself to continue manufacturing VCRs
according to the Philips—-Grundig V2000 technology, but wanted
rather to keep the Japanese (VHS) option open and, according to its
public declarations, to work with Grundig on the development of a
new generation of VCRs. Secondly, Philips was, ahead of Siemens,
Grundig’s biggest components supplier, with annual sales to
Grundig worth several hundred million Deutschmarks. lf Thomson
had taken over Grundig, this trade would have been lost.

A sequel to the failure of Thomson's bid for Grundig was that in
1984, with bank assistance, Philips assumed managerial control of
Grundig. Thus, at the end of this phase of the restructuring
programme of the European consumer electronics industry, two
main groups have emerged, one centred around Philips, the other
around Thomson, and Blaupunkt is the only significant firm in
West Germany left under West German control. But a common
European response (i.e. one involving Philips and Thomson) to the
Japanese challenge of the kind which Max Grundig
had envisaged
in 1982 had not come about, and may be less likely given
Thomson’s acquisitions in Britain and the US which make it a much
more powerful competitor to Philips. But the acceleration in
Japanese and also Korean inward investment in Europe in 1986-7,
especially in VCR production where there are now a total of twenty
Far Eastern-owned plants, suggests that the process of restructuring
within Europe is far from complete.

The recent experience of the European consumer electronics
industry points to the critical role of the framework and instruments
of regulation in trying to account for the different responses of the
various national industries and governments to the challenges
posed by growing Japanese competitive strength and technological
leadership. At one extreme is self-regulation by individual firms,
where governments eschew any attempt to determine the responses
which particular firms make to changing market conditions, whilst
adopting policy regimes such as tax and tariff structures and
openness to inward investment which critically affect the conditions
under which self-regulation takes place." At the other extreme is
regulation by government intervention at the level of firm strategy,
where governments seek specific policy outcomes by offering
specific forms of inducement to selected firms and denying them to
others.”

HISTORY OF GRUNDIG IN GERMAN:

1930 gründet der Kaufmann und Radiobastler Max Grundig (1908-1989) den Radio-Vertrieb Fürth, Grundig & Wurzer (RVF), ein Radio-Fachgeschäft mit Werkstatt. Bald fabriziert der Betrieb auch Transformatoren und Spulen, später zudem Prüfgeräte. 1934 zahlt Grundig den Teilhaber und Freund Karl Wurzer aus. 1938 beträgt der Umsatz mehr als 1 Mio. RM. Während des Krieges fabriziert Grundig im Dorf Vach mit etwa 600 Personen, darunter vielen Ukrainerinnen, Kleintrafos, elektrische Zünder und Steuergeräte für die V-Raketen. Das Grundig-Vermögen schätzt man am Kriegsende auf 17,5 Mio. RM

Ab 18. Mai 1945 kann Grundig wieder in Fürth produzieren. Er lässt Transformatoren wickeln, Reparaturen ausführen und stellt kurz darauf das Röhrenprüfgerät «Tubatest» und das Fehler-Suchgerät «Novatest» her. Ab 15.1.46 lässt Grundig den externen Ing. Hans Eckstein, den früheren Konstrukteur bei Lumophon, einen Einkreiser-Baukasten mit späterem Namen «Heinzelmann» entwickeln. Anfang 1946 beschäftigt Grundig ca. 100 Personen. Ab Oktober 1946 läuft die Produktion des «Heinzelmann» und die Firma stellt bis Ende 1946 391 Baukästen her. Die vierseitige Geschichte dazu findet sich in der Zeitschrift «rft» 1991, ab Seite 421. Grundig hat auch 1947 grossen Erfolg, denn ein Baukasten ist ohne Bezugsschein erhältlich. Das erste Modell (A) ist ein Zwei-Röhren-Allstromempfänger mit Wehrmachtsröhren RV12P2000. Die Produktion findet bald mit 120 Mitarbeitern auf 400 qm statt. Anfang 1947 folgt Modell W [634701]. Der Baukasten erreicht 1948 eine Stückzahl von 39'256 [DRM].

Am 15.3.47 beginnt Grundig mit dem Bau eines modernen Fabrikgebäudes auf 8000 qm Fläche. Mitte 1948 kann die Firma den Superhet «Weltklang» anbieten; er findet ebenfalls guten Absatz. 400 Personen arbeiten auf 3000 qm Fläche. Im Juli 1948 benennt Grundig seine Firma in Grundig-Radiowerke GmbH um. Jetzt arbeiten 650 Personen im Betrieb. 1949 kommt als erstes deutsches Nachkriegs-Koffergerät der «Grundig-Boy» auf den Markt. Die Firma bringt eine Neukonstruktion des «Heinzelmann» auf den Markt. Zudem entsteht der Vier-Kreis-Super «Weltklang 268GW». Im Mai 1949 erreicht der Betrieb in der Bizone (eigentlich Trizone!) 20 % Marktanteil [664905]. Die Bizone ist der Zusammenschluss der amerikan. und brit. Besatzungszone von 1947 bis 8.4.49, die sich ab dann durch den Anschluss der frz. Besatzungszone zur Trizone erweitert.

Am 16. Mai 1951 übernimmt Grundig die Lumophon-Werke (ebenfalls in Fürth) für den Betrag von 1,7 Mio. DM. Im gleichen Jahr entstehen erste Grundig-Tonbandgeräte. 1952 beginnt die Produktion von Fernsehgeräten. Das Unternehmen beschäftigt nun 6000 Personen und feiert am 12. Mai 1952 den millionsten Rundfunkempfänger. Die Baureihe von 1952/53 ist erstmals technisch und formal einheitlich gestaltet, wobei Grundig die prinzipielle Form bis 1956/57 beibehält. Ausser Typ 810 mit Flankengleichrichter enthalten alle Geräte einen integrierten FM-Teil mit Ratiodetektor. 1955 bezeichnet sich Grundig als den grössten Tonbandgeräte-Hersteller der Welt. 1956 kauft er das Telefunken-Rundfunkgerätewerk Dachau [639071]. 1959 besteht Grundig aus sieben Werken, zwei Tochtergesellschaften plus einer Neugründung in den USA. 1964 übernimmt Grundig die Tonfunk-Werke, Karlsruhe. 1969 beteiligt sich Grundig mehrheitlich an der Kaiser-Radio in Kenzingen. Max Grundig ist seit 1970 gesundheitlich angeschlagen.

1978 gehören 31 Werke, 9 Niederlassungen mit 20 Filialen und drei Werksvertretungen, 8 Vertriebs- und 200 Exportvertretungen zur Grundig AG. 1979 beschäftigt das Unternehmen 38'000 Personen; der Umsatz liegt bei 3 Mrd. DM. Ein Hauptstandort ist Nürnberg. Grundig muss sich jedoch einer Umstrukturierung unterziehen und Philips erhält 1979 eine Beteiligung von rund 25 %. 1980/81 muss Grundig einen Verlust von 187 Mio. DM hinnehmen. Zusätzlich scheitert das Gerät «VIDEO 2000» finanziell.

Eine detaillierte Firmengeschichte enthält das 1983 erschienene Buch: «Sieben Tage im Leben des Max Grundig» von Egon Fein.

Allerdings lässt sich aus [481, Saba] auch wenig Schmeichelhaftes über das Machtstreben von Max Grundig erfahren.

1984 erhöht Philips die Beteiligung um 7 % und übernimmt die unternehmerische Verantwortung. 1986/87 kann das Unternehmen mit noch 19'500 Mitarbeitern wieder schwarze Zahlen schreiben. 1987/88 beschäftigt Grundig noch 18'700 Personen bei einem Umsatz von

3,2 Mrd. DM, wovon 90 % auf die Unterhaltungselektronik entfallen. In diesem Geschäftsjahr verlassen 2 Mio. Farbfernsehgeräte und 750'000 Videorecorder die Bänder. Max Grundig stirbt im Dezember 1989 [639071] - letztlich hatte er nicht das vierblättrige, sondern das dreiblättrige Kleeblatt als Firmenemblem gewählt.

Philips hat das Unternehmen vollständig übernommen. Mitte 90er Jahre beschäftigt Grundig noch 8000 Personen. Eine detaillierte Firmengeschichte findet sich in «kleeblatt radio» ab 5/93 des Förderverein des Rundfunkmuseums der Stadt Fürth eV.

1998 verkaufte Philips das Unternehmen an ein Konsortium unter Führung von Anton Kathrein von den Kathrein-Werken. Im Jahre 2001 wurde bei einem Umsatz von 1,2 Milliarden Euro ein Verlust von 150 Millionen Euro erwirtschaftet. Daher verlängerten die Banken im Herbst 2002 die Kreditlinien nicht mehr, was zur Insolvenz im April 2003 führte. In der Folgezeit wurden gewinnbringende Sparten (wie z.B. Bürogeräte, Autoradios) aus dem Konzern herausgelöst und einzeln verkauft. Verlustreiche Sparten wurden stillgelegt und die Mitarbeiter entlassen. Heute erhältliche Neuware von Grundig ist kaum noch "made in Germany".